Tag Archives: World War II

What was the Tunguska Event?

28 Mar

Early in the morning of June 17th, 1908, an enormous explosion rocked a remote Siberian area of Russia known as Krasnoyask Krai. The explosion was so massive that it leveled an entire forest of 80 million trees, and it is estimated that it was more than 1000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima during World War II. The epicenter of the explosion was in a swamp near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, so the event became known as the Tunguska Event.

Location of the explosion's epicenter in Russia

Location of the explosion’s epicenter in Russia

Luckily, despite the size of the event, it is thought that only one person was killed by the blast (although, not so lucky for the poor man who was killed). This was due to the sheer remoteness of the area that was hit. A lot of people did see it happen, though. Witnesses from areas much farther south claimed that they saw something extremely bright and pale blue moving across the sky, and a few minutes later there was a bright flash accompanied by a thunderous sound. A shockwave, which would have registered at 5.0 on the Richter scale, caused people to be knocked off their feet hundreds of kilometers away.

Fallen trees after the explosion, taken in 1927 by Leonid Kulik's expedition to the area

Fallen trees after the explosion, taken in 1927 by Leonid Kulik’s expedition to the area

So, what actually caused this massive explosion? There are several theories. Some have claimed that it may have been caused by the release of natural gases from the Earth’s crust, and others proposed that the explosion may have been a nuclear one; caused by deuterium in a comet undergoing nuclear fusion as it entered the Earth’s atmosphere. Another theory claimed that it was caused by a black hole passing through Earth. And, of course, a lot of people have brought up theories involving UFOs and aliens, especially since as the event is referenced in pop-culture quite a lot.

However, the most widely-accepted explanation is that a large meteoroid or comet caused it, exploding just above the Earth’s surface. This would explain the lack of an impact crater in the area. If this is true, then it was the largest impact event on or near the Earth in modern history. Chemical analysis of soils in the region showed that parts of it contained materials of extraterrestrial origin, further supporting this impact theory.

Meteor. Credit: Navicore

Meteor falling to Earth. Credit: Navicore

Despite the fact that the Tunguska Event is still technically unexplained, I would agree that the impact event theory seems to be the most likely. I think it would be even more interesting if there were a more mysterious explanation, though! It’s also very fortunate that it happened in such a remote area, because if it hit a populated area, then the aftermath would have been far worse.

Bog Bodies

28 Mar

Depending on certain variables, human decomposition is generally a very short process, and a dead body buried underground will normally be completely skeletonized in a maximum period of 50 years. If left out in the open, a body will decompose much faster than this. However, the mummified remains of bodies found in peat bogs, known as ‘bog bodies’, can be up to thousands of years old and almost perfectly preserved.

Tollund Man - Found in Denmark and found to be around 2600 years old. Credit: Sven Rosborn

Tollund Man – Found in Denmark and dated to around 2400 years ago. Credit: Sven Rosborn

Grauballe Man - Found in Denmark and dated to 2300 years ago. Credit: Malene Thyssen

Grauballe Man – Found in Denmark and dated to 2300 years ago. Credit: Malene Thyssen

Rendswühren Man - Found in Germany and dated to around 1900 years old

Rendswühren Man – Found in Germany and dated to around 1900 years old

Brammer Man - Found in Germany and dated to around 500 years ago. Note the still visible beard on his face.

Brammer Man – Found in Germany and dated to around 500 years ago. Note the still-visible beard on his face.

Peat bogs are most prevalent in cold, temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere (it is possible for them to occur in the Southern Hemisphere, but they are much smaller and less common), and thus, all the bog bodies located so far have been in Northern Europe and North America. Not all are well-preserved, but many still have intact hair, skin and internal organs. So, how is this possible? And, how did the bodies get there in the first place?

Peat bog - Credit to Boréal

Peat bog. Credit: Boréal

The water in peat bogs is cold, acidic, and lacks oxygen, and combined, these factors lead to amazing tissue preservation. Also, tannin (a compound present in tea – this is the stuff that can stain your tea-cups) in the bogs leads to the darker appearance of the skin, and has anti-bacterial properties that aid in the preservation. Unfortunately, the acid in the bog water often destroys the bones, as it dissolves the calcium phosphate in them, leaving only the tissue and hair preserved.

Because of the good soft-tissue preservation, the stomach contents of the bodies can be analysed in some cases, which tells us something about the diets of people during whichever period they lived in. In cases where bones have been preserved, archaeologists can tell what kinds of activities the person engaged in, and even if they were right-handed or left-handed! Also, forensic techniques have been applied to some of the bodies in order to reconstruct their appearances. Here’s some examples:

Reconstruction of Lindow Man's face - Credit: www.culture24.org.uk

Reconstruction of Lindow Man’s face. Credit: http://www.culture24.org.uk

Reconstructed face of the Girl from Uchter Moor - Credit to AxelHH

Reconstructed face of the Girl from Uchter Moor. Credit: AxelHH

The bodies that have been recovered from peat bogs cover a very wide time span, with some dated from 10,000 years ago and others all the way up to World War II. It seems that some of the bodies belonged to unlucky individuals who simply fell in, but many others appear to have died violently, after which they were thrown into the bogs. This may have been as punishment for a crime, or, perhaps it was human sacrifice. The majority of the violently-killed bodies have been dated to the Iron Age (this began around 3000 years ago, and lasted about 500 years), so some archaeologists believe that Iron Age groups may have had this means of execution or ritual sacrifice as a cultural tradition.

Overall, the bog bodies are not only interesting, but very useful to historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists, as they yield so much useful information in regards to past peoples who lived around the bogs. For more reading on the topic, check out



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